Last nights class was very interesting. We applied probability, physics, positional notation, the telegraph etc. to understand how communications evolved. First, the telegraph was invented in 1844 and had to have wires. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone, which had a complex wiring system, and is also the ancestor of the computer system. In 1897, Guglielmi Marconi invented the wireless telegraph in hopes that it would be a way for people to communicate with each other, but instead its main purpose was used for broadcast radio. Another important person to remember is Claude Shannon. His information theory laid the basis for electric computers and stated that energy is fundamental to the universe. Furthermore, information was defined as the opposite of entropy. In other words information is what is needed to reduce uncertainty and therefore, makes a difference. In addition, Norbert Weiner coined the term cybernetics for his science of control. This was the beginning of computer science and cognitive studies. It is very fascinating to see how these advancements in the past have shaped the communication we use now.